Seismic hazard is the potential for, or probability of, dangerous earthquake-related phenomena. Most often, this is ground shaking but it could also be liquefaction or fault rupture at the ground surface.
There are a number of methods that have been used to estimate seismic hazard. This text gives a quick guide as to how they work, with some comments as to their advantages and disadvantages. It concludes with a couple of more general issues relating to seismic hazard.